I can understand different methods of thought in history
I can see how innovations contributed to the development of the world around me
Vocabulary Monday (Tuesday this week):
Johann Gutenberg: inventor of the printing press.
Marco Polo: In 1271 Marco Polo traveled with his father and uncle to China, and returned to Venice, Italy in 1295. Marco Polo wrote a book about his travels, which served as the only source of information about many parts of Asia for Europeans for until the late 1800s.
printing press: a machine that presses inked plates containing images or text onto paper or textiles that are fed through the machine.
Silk Road: a trade route stretching from Xian, China to the Mediterranean Sea, active from about 100 BC until the discovery of a sea route from Europe to Asia in the late 15th century dealt a damaging blow to trade along the Silk Road.
woodblock printing: Prints made from blocks of wood carved with pictures or text. The blocks are covered with Ink and then pressed on to paper where the Image or text Is transferred.
chronological: events arranged in the order in which they occurred.
Humanism: an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters
Secular: denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.
Monday's Lesson: Geography BEE (Mrs. Howard)
Tuesday: Quick Write...what helps you make a decision?
Wednesday: Writing (before printing press) and then, the printing press
Reading assignment: Please read below
BACKGROUND: Printing is the process of making multiple copies of an image. The image may be a picture, letters or numbers, or any combination of pictures and text. Anything that can be drawn can be printed. The invention of printing really began with the invention of paper, in China, in the year 105 AD. Once the Chinese had paper, they began to duplicate images on paper by carving the reverse of the image into a block of wood, applying ink and then pressing the paper onto the block. By the 10th century the Chinese were printing paper money for use by Chinese citizens. In 1041, individual Chinese characters were being carved in clay and assembled on wood blocks as a way of printing whole scrolls of Chinese text. These movable characters did not make a big impression on Chinese communication though the Chinese language uses an average of 5000 characters, a lot to keep track of and move around!
For centuries, Europe traded with China along the Silk Road, an ancient route that allowed exchanges of horses, spices, silk and eventually paper between China and Europe. When Marco Polo returned to his home in Venice, Italy in 1295, having spent 24 years exploring China, he brought with him knowledge of woodblock printing. Italians began to produce books using the hand-carved block technique of cutting away the background of the wooden block, leaving raised letters. The raised letters were then inked and paper placed overtop. When removed, the result was a printed page of words and images. Sometimes a page of a book would require a number of carved woodblocks joined together. The process was time consuming and not permanent. Since wood weathers and cracks if it's dry and warps if it is wet, giving the blocks used to print pages had a limited lifespan.
In 1436, a German man named Johann Gutenberg altered an olive press to create a printing press machine. Instead of using the heavy screw to press the olives for oil, he used it to force a printing block onto a sheet of paper below it. Gutenberg developed metal type for each of the 26 characters in the Roman alphabet (easier to manage than the Chinese 5000), and designed a way to move the characters around on a printing plate. This system became known as the movable type printing press and made it possible to print multiple copies. With its invention, it was possible to print more copies in a few weeks than could have been produced in years using the hand-carved block method. The printed word spread like very quickly throughout Europe.
Before the printing press was created, only the church and royalty were wealthy enough to have books printed. Once printed material became widely available, a greater number of people learned to read and the flow of textual information reached all corners of Europe. Access to information helped to feed Europe's brainpower, closing out the Middle Ages for good and helping to open the door for the Renaissance.
Now here is the timeline for the printing press
PRINTING PRESS TIMELINE 1041 Movable clay type invented in China. 1436 Gutenberg began work on a printing press. 1440 Gutenberg completed his wooden press, which used movable metal type. 1461 The first illustrated book is printed, Edelstein, featuring a number of woodcuts. 1477 England prints its first book. 1499 Printing is established in more than 250 cities around Europe. 1550 Metal screw threads replace wooden ones to aid the power action of printing presses. 1584 Cambridge University begins printing. Still active today. 1593 Shakespeare's Venus & Adonis is printed 1609 Johan Carolus of Strasbourg prints the world's first newspaper. 1637 A decree limits the number of printers and foundries in England. 1639 Stephen Day sets up the first printing press in the United States. 1644 The Licensing Act is passed and anything printed is subject to censorship in England. 1689 The Declaration of Rights is issued, leading to the end of the Licensing Act in England. 1690 America begins to print paper money. 1694 The Licensing Act expires and is not renewed. 1699 By this year, 150 paper mills in England employ over 2,500 workers. 1720 France begins to print paper money